Pythagoras was a Greek philosopher, born on the island of Samos. We can date his life back to between 580-520 BC As a young man he moved to the Greek city of Croton, where he developed a philosophical and religious school which made many outstanding contributions to mathematics, astrology, and music. Here Pythagoras was a very active teacher of his time. He invented an 8-string lyre, taught astrology, music, mathematics, and more.
Pythagoras and his students believed that everything was related to mathematics, and felt that everything could be predicted and measured in rhythmic cycles. The Pythagoreans went as far as to explain numbers and their properties by means of dots arranged in certain figures or patterns. Pythagoras believed that the letters in the alphabet corresponded to certain numbers. From this theory he developed his own form of numerology and was able to determine the personality aspects of an individual based on her/his name. He even went as far to change his name to experience different aspects. He developed a wheel of letters and numbers that encircled a globe. By using the numbers of an individual's name it was possible to predict future events with his globe.
Pythagoras is most famous for his Pythagorean Theory relating the lengths of the sides of a right triangle. Although it seems that the Babylonians knew of the theory, the Pythagoreans are credited with being the first to prove it. Also, the theory was not proved until after Pythagoras had died.
Pythagoras did a great deal work in astronomy. His most important belief was the belief that the earth was in motion. Sadly, he failed to prove that all parts of the universe could be expressed in terms of whole numbers. But this attempt helped the development of math and science.
Pythagoras and his followers also developed theories around the anatomy of man. They believed that man has three different bodies operating in three distinct realms. They believed that man had a separate body for the physical, astral, and mind realms. They went further in medicine to note that there are opposites, such as the hot and the cold, wet and the dry, and it is the business of the physician to produce a proper 'blend' of these in the human body.
The Pythagoreans felt that the physician role was helping the body to be properly strung, and tuned to a certain pitch. It is believed the Pythagoras and his followers were vegetarians. The Pythagoreans believed that animals and man were on the same journey together, and that man was only a little further along on this path than his animal companions. They believed that that souls from one human or animal are transferred to a new human or animal after death.